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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

This page contains a compendium of the most frequenly asked questions on the Tanzer 22 Email List.  Individual credit for the questions/answers is not given below. Many thanks to all of the contributors to the Tanzer 22 Email List.  If you have any contributions, corrections or clarifications to add, please email the webmaster

Launching

Raising  the Mast

This is best done on a calm day, or pointing into the wind.

Using a Mast Crane

1) With the mast lying along the centerline of your T22 (foot towards the bow), attach the backstay and outer shrouds.

2) Attach the mast lift just underneath the spreaders.  The upper pully of the lift should be a few feet in front of your
mast base so it has leverage to pull your mast forward.

3) Begin lifting the mast.  As you are lifting, slowly swing the mast foot back towards its base until the shrouds become tight,
but keep the mast foot supported above the deck (hold it up with your hands -- you are only guiding it, the hoist is doing all the lifting).

4) Continue lifting the mast.  You will notice that as the mast nears vertical, the foot will naturally settle towards its base.

5) When the mast is vertical, insert the bolt through the mast base to secure the foot, and attach the forestay.  Take up slack in all attached shrouds.

6) Release tension on lifting hoist.

7) Attach lower shrouds and proceed to tension the rig.

By Hand

This is best done with two helpers.  Make sure you have EVERYTHING that you may need ready at hand: clevis pins, extra clevis pins in case you drop one, cotter pins, tools - open-end wrench for the turnbuckle nuts, screwdriver to turn the turnbuckle barrel, turnbuckle covers if you use them, mast step bolt, etc. Have a non-weight-bearing helper available to fetch tools, pins, just to be safe.

1) Make sure your shrouds are laying correctly with the mast down, that is that they lay as they belong once the mast goes up, not twisted around each other, the mast, through the spreaders, etc.  Then double check this.

2) Make sure your upper shrouds are wired correctly to the spreaders and the spreader boots are fastened.

3) Make sure your turnbuckles are lubricated, using CRC or WD-40. Disassemble the turnbuckles fully, then reassemble them starting one side a couple of turns before the other. That way if you loosen one a little too much both ends don't pop out at the same time.

4) With the mast lying along the centerline of your T22 (foot towards the bow), attach the backstay.

5) Position the foot of the mast on the mast base, and insert the bolt to secure the foot.

6) With one helper to the left, and one helper to the right, raise the mast to its vertical position.

7) While the helpers hold the mast in place, attach the forestay, followed by the the outer shrouds, then the inner shrouds.

8) Tension the rig.


Standing Rigging

Too little tension can cause considerably more stress on your rig than the proper, higher tension called for in the guides.  If your leeward stays go slack, then when you tack they'll snap taut and you'll get much higher dynamic loading then you would if they were tight to begin with.   If you don't think your older boat can stand the higher tension, then you'd better limit your sailing to light winds on calm waters, and only on Sunday afternoons.

The up-side to proper tuning/tension is greatly enhanced performance.  Whether you race or not, performance is the name of the game - take the time to make sure it's right.
 
Align the mast straight and perpendicular athwart-ship with whatever rake suits you (10" seems a good starting point).

Using a Loos guage, tension the rig as follows:

Fore and back stays: 900 lbs.
Uppers: 750 to 850 lbs.
Lowers: 600 to 700 lbs.

Re-check the tension periodically and adjust as necessary.
 


Sailing & Sail Controls

Black Bands

What are "black bands", where are they located, what is their function, etc.

Bands, ( black, red, white or whatever) are used to identify the maximum extension of a mainsail. Most generally used near the top of the mast to mark max hoist for the main, and on the boom to mark max foot length. On boats that have adjustable goosenecks, they are supposed to mark the max down position as well.

There is no requirement for black bands on the T22.


Gooseneck

 How far from the base of the mast should the gooseneck be? Should the boom be parallel to the boat? What are the advantages of moving the gooseneck up and down?

Let the sail tell you where to set the boom: pull the mainsail up all the way, so the headboard just clears the backstay, then slide the boom down until you've got a little tension on the luff of the sail. If you want to get fancy and adjust sail shape for different conditions you can adjust luff tension using the gooseneck, or add a cunningham.


Heel angle

What is the maximum heel angle the Tanzer can stand without going over?

Probably until your spreaders touch the water! We broached with the chute up (along with the rest of the fleet!) in a big gust on too tight a reach last Wednesday night during club racing, and managed to take about a foot of water into the cockpit before all was under control again. And we got off fairly light! It all drained out within a minute (and it's worth making sure the seals under your cockpit hatches are tight too -- mine were). The T22 won't go over or capsize like a dinghy -- it'll just lay down until normal gravity and physics take over again and it pops back up. Too much heel is slow and uncomfortable though -- to say nothing of wet -- better to put up a smaller headsail and reef the main to keep the heel down to something reasonable, like 15 or 25 degrees. I've got double reefing points on my mainsail, and have even used the second reef a few times! Flattening sails will help too -- put on lots of main outhaul and luff tension. Get everyone up on the high side too to help keep things flat. -- Make sure that the cockpit lockers are well sealed and you should have no problems. To be extra safe, you can configure bungee cords to keep the bottom of the companion way door in place. Then just worry about keeping your spreaders dry!

25knots plus of wind, and you're starting to get in the realm of small craft advisories. Keep your VHF on (loud enough) for any Coast Guard broadcasts.

Don't cleat your sails...the stronger the wind, the more tempting, but no matter how scary and potentially damaging dipping your leeward spreader is, dipping the (formerly) windward one unexpectedly is far worse (not to mention embarrassing).
 


Hull Speed

What is the maximum speed of a Tanzer 22?

The short answer: 6.

The longer answer: use the magic formula for displacement hulls...

V=1.34(L)^0.5 (ie, square root of waterline length)

with V in knots and L in feet. Keep in mind it's only theoretical. The 1.34 coefficient is approximate, as it was derived from observation of full-keeled wooden boats, and can vary from 1.20 to 1.8 depending on hull shape as there are lots of other factors that can come into play. Heeling, for example, will lengthen waterline length, but there's also induced drag, yawing, eddy formation, wave making, transom separation, and other rather frightening things to throw the estimate off. The T22 has a waterline length of about 19.75 ft, so an approximate displacement hull speed is 5.96 knots.

Since the T22 hull is flat on the after part of the hull's wetted surface ("flat buttocks"), it likes to surf and even plane given the right conditions.

A boat's hull speed is by no means a speed limit. It is simply the point at which the boat begins to lose power by climbing its own bow wave. It should be used as a guideline only. The ultimate speed of the boat depends only on how much power you can generate with the sails given a fixed hull design.

The added drag because of the effect of the bow wave increases until it reaches a maximum at twice the hull speed... the Tanzer who was going 11 knots was close to this point. This is the point you see a motorboat go through during acceleration when the bow is pointing at the sky. After that, the effect lessens again until at very large speeds it disappears entirely. Of course, by this point you are clearly "planing", which is another way to reduce the hydrodynamic drag of a boat by reducing the displacement and surface area.


Knot (Nauticle Mile)

A knot is equal to one nauticle mile per hour. A nautical mile differs from the statute mile - nautical mile = 6076 feet while a statute mile = 5280 feet (learned it in imperial, don't have the metric conversion). A cable is equal to 1/10th of a nautical mile - i.e. 608 feet, but is generally rounded off to 600 feet. nautical miles are indicated using the (') symbol - the same symbol used for minutes. Makes sense, because one nautical mile = one minute of latitude! Therefore, 60 minutes of latitude (one degree) = 60' - whether your near the equator, the tropic of Cancer or Alert! But you have to be careful when measuring on a chart - Mercator charts are made by wrapping a piece of paper around the earth in a cylinder shape (as opposed to conic or polyconic which use a cone shape or a series of cones) However, Mercator are the most popular chart projection for navigating because rumb lines or course lines are straight, and they are easy to measure distances, bearings and lat and long off. Like any chart, there is distortion - the distance between the latitude lines change and you must be careful to measure distances off the latitude scale closest to where you are transitting. And make sure you know what projection your chart is - you can't use the latitude scale on a Polyconic chart for measuring distances, you have to use the 'sea mile' scale located at the top and the bottom of the chart! (if you have a polyconic chart look at the latitude lines - if you put a set of parallel rulers along them you'll see they aren't straight! As well, the lines of longitude aren't parallel - they converge towards some point off the chart - the point of the cone).


Jiffy Reefing

Has anyone configured a single line reefing setup that could be led back?

 


PHRF Rating

What is the PHRF rating is for a K/CB T-22?

Depends which region you're in and your sail measurements.

In PHRF-LO (Lake Ontario) the Standard Boat Speed Potential (SP) is 234 with flying sails and 243 without. The T22 has a large foretriangle by PHRF reckoning so Class sails will incur a penalty: for example, #1107 has a Class spinnaker and Class #1 genoa and takes 9 seconds per mile adjustment, yielding 225. The T22 also took a 3 second adjustment in our region at the beginning of the season. Ouch!

For the lower Chesapeake Bay,   keel = 234, K/CB = 240.


Traveler Position

I had asked for advice concerning the best way to de-power the main in a rising breeze: traveler to windward (slacken the main sheet to introduce leech twist and spill air) vs. traveler to leeward (tension the main to flatten the sail to reduce drive).  I got many replies and the clear consensus was to move the traveler to leeward.  Thank very much for all of your suggestions.  I tried out both last Sunday...I must admit that I prefer traveler to windward. Without exhaustive testing it appears to me that I can keep her on  her feet better that way.  I must also admit that my sails are quite old and have quite a belly.  I suspect that I cannot flatten  them enough with sheet tension to make much of a difference.  Will experiment some more the next time the wind picks up.


Haulout

Boat Cover

Has anybody ever thought about fashioning a boat cover from Tyvek house wrap? Is it waterproof? I understand it comes in three

I talked to DuPont about the use of Tyvek as a cover for an exposed outdoor application. They indicated that it lacks UV resistance and will not hold up.


Haul-out Check List

Here is a start on a check list:

  1. drop mast and secure firmly above hull to act as ridge pole for cover,
  2. remove safety lines (but not pulpits),
  3. make certain the holding tank is pumped out and the head drained,
  4. make sure that the sling markes on the gun'l are clearly painted,
  5. after you've got your hull squarely on its cradle, crub down the hull, remove the motor and winterize it, remove rudder and store after cleaning,
  6. make certain that all holds are free of water and dry,
  7. on the first warm day (18C or about 60F) wax and polish hull and topsides,
  8. cover at least the cockpit area with canvas or heavy plastic. Assure that it is TIGHTly held and will not flap in the wind,
  9. check your cover for flapping on the first high wind. If you lit it flap you will lose it within a gay or two!
  10. Have a good winter skii!

Lifting straps

In preparation for haulout, we need to mark our boat to show where the lifting straps should be placed. Can anyone tell me what the proper location is for these markings?

In my opinion the front strap is the important one. The boat is bow heavy so place the strap so that it lines up, as much as possible, with the bulkhead. The rear one will find a place. Make sure that the crane operator emplolys a spreader frame. Squeezing the boat with slings makes the hull/deck joint leak.


Winter Storage

The one winter I didn't check the boat found a foot of water in it in the spring, destroyed electrical panel, woodwork, and significant corrosion to the boom and jib-boom which were lying on the sole, in the slop. Amazing how much money even a cheap $40 tarp can save :-).

Another thing to do: Make a hole in the bottom of the boat so that water can drain out! In our case, we remove the depth and speed transducers and uncap the thru-hull that fills the hole the old depth transducer left. 'Course, make a BIG note that they're uncapped before you splash in the spring.

One important point not yet mentioned is be sure the cockpit is covered if you are not covering the whole boat. The concern is to prevent ice damming in the cockpit drains. They can and do trap water, freeze and split. I would also remove electronics and anything that may be susceptible to condensation damage. IF the boat stays dry inside all winter the the concerns are small, if not, look out! (personal experience - one bad winter led to new electrical system, cabinetry, and soon, upholstery :-( ).

--- I am also of the "take down the mast, strip the boat & cover it" philosophy. My particular details:

I take EVERYTHING off the boat except the anchors (but the rodes go home for a fresh-water wash). When I strip the boat I really take home everything: Batteries (take home & charge) cushions, electronics, even the rudder. Water tank is empty (I don't have a built-in head). THE WHOLE BOAT IS EMPTY! The bilge is sponged dry if necessary, so you will know if there were any leaks. I leave my Nicro Day/Night solar vent in place, for whatever benefit it will have under the tarp.

One exception: whatever remains in the Mount Gay Rum bottle at the end of the season stays on the boat in case my crew & I need personal antifreeze on a cold spring workday!

The boatyard I winter at requires that the mast comes down, but I would take it down anyway. Then I unbolt one spreader from the bracket. I take off the stanchions and lifelines (they come home too, for cleaning/polishing). With the lifelines & stanchions off the boat, the tarp doesn't get too many punctures. You can cover the teak rails with plumbing pipe insulation if you want.

The mast makes a nice clean ridge pole for a full-length cover (a 15'x30' tarp). The mast spans from a carpet pad at the bow pulpit to a pad on the stern rail, slightly off-center at the stern, so I don't constantly bang my head going through the companionway during spring work. I support the mast at midspan with a couple of 2x4s. Wrap the ends of the mast in several kitchen garbage bags to keep out weather & birds.

Make sure that tarp fits as tight as you can get it. I've seen some plastic tarps get pretty abrasive, and you'd be surprised how much damage a sliding grommet can do over the winter. To weight down & secure the tarp at the bow use a couple of bleach jugs full of water.

I take the outboard to the Evinrude dealer for winterizing. Not the cheapest route, but my 1983 engine does start on the first pull. The dealer does a thorough checking over. With several people on this list quoting over $2,000 for a new outboard, spending a little extra to get longer engine life seems worth it to me. I'd certainly do it the first winter with a new (used) boat.

I try to check the boat monthly during the winter, just to make sure the cover is secure.

--- I emptied the NightCap of everything I could get off including radio and depth.

I made sure the bilge was dry.

I put 8 litres of anti-freeze in the toilet.

I drained the water tank and removed the hoses.

Removed every block & winch I could.

Covered the mast in saran wrap.

I put a cover on. I am really proud of this - made a frame from 1.5 " PVC pipe. Details available on request. Cost about C$60 plus a tarp @ C$35.

Said a tearful farewell and went home to hibernate. --- Other than the security issue which may be of particular concern to some, I always leave all my electronics, cushions, etc aboard for the winter, mainly because it is a bother to move them. I have done this for years on a number of sailboats with no ill effects. The only caution is humidity and moisture from condensation. The boat needs to be well ventilated and I would stand the cushions on end and avoid touching the hull or horizontal surfaces where condenstaion moisture is likely to gather. I usually put something under the cushions to make sure there is minimal contact, for example, floor boards, styrofoam, etc. This will probably generate lots of flak as common wisdom is to strip a boat, but I have had no problems over a 25 year period of doing this. Lastly I would make sure that anything in your cockpit lockers is similarly lifted up so it doesn't simply lie against the hull where it can soak up the moisture. --- One method of holding the lower edge of the tarp is to use copper two hole pipe straps that fit over the "rub-strip". connect these clips to a bunge coard that is woven through the bottom edge of the tarp with enough tention to hold the tarp in place. On my T-7.5 (033) 1-1/4" copper pipe clamps grip the "rub rail" tightly enough to hold the lower edge of my tarp in place.

Just in the process of tarping the boat. if you remove your spreaders and life lines, using the mast as an "A" frame works great. Using 2 2x8's at bow and stern with a groove cut for the mast, fasten the mast from the center to bow and stern, so it can not move. The tarp secures it further. This never lets the snow build up. Just found the perfect tarp. Hay bail tarp, bought at a local farm supply, ton's better then the blue junk and a third as expensive as a canvas. Cost $225. -- The boat is now on its cradle at Nepean Sailing Club. I pumped out the holding tank prior to haul out. Have put non toxic antifreeze through the faucet and head. Removed motor, depth sounder and VHF. All I have to do is remove battery and finish covering with a tarpaulin <sp.

• The sink and other metal parts probably could stand a wipe down with some Vasoline on a rag. It prevents corrosion. Poles and boom, mast and fittings but not on the gelcoat.

Secondly - Is there anything I should do for motor maintenance over the winter. Pervious owner removed sparkplug and put oil through the spark plug hole. Should I do this, or something else?

• If you store inside and warm I drain the lower end and replace it with fresh gear lub. I fog the plug hole and rotate the motor a couple of times to coat the piston walls and the pistons. I clean the motor and wipe the outside surface with cloth impregnated with some fresh oil. I clean and gap the plugs and replace them if necessary. I have left most of the fittings, fixtures, speakers, pillows, cushions on board. Is this wise?

• Anything that will absorb water and grow mould I remove. It takes part of a large closet to contain the stuff but in the spring and summer the lack of odours is really nice. Mice love boat upholstery and I have seen 2 boats "ravaged" by them. What a mess! ----- 1. Remove anything that might mold such as clothing etc.

2. Make CERTAIN that your cover is well fastened ie there is no flapping, because winter winds are dynamite on covers. Check frequently from now until the end of the year, particularly when the winds are up.

3. Keep your battery well charged.

4. Yes, wash and wax your hull before covering. Temps should be 10C plus and DO polish. I thought I would polish the next spring one year - and what a job! I also apply another coat in the spring.

5. There are proper lubricants to oil the cylinder walls of your outboard. Give each cylinder a couple of squirts through the spark plug hole and turn the motor over by hand a couple of times with the plugs removed. Clean (or replace) the plugs and, with fresh gas in the spring, she will start on the first or second turn.

6. Register for a Power and Sail Squadron course (if it's not two late) then, next summer you can fly the P&S pennant.

Am I better off just using a yard for winter storage ?

I have no trailer and no car that could tow one if I had one.  I found the cheapest solution was to have a boat yard deliver my boat, on its cradle, to my home where I store it for the winter.  That way it is easy keep an eye on and close to power, water, and compressed air for spring preparation.  I just paid $200 for pick-up and launch, and that
included cleaning and painting the centerboard and cradle patches. The yard I use has an hydraulic trailer that straddles the cradle, lifts it, and carries it over the road.

What are the disadvantages to in the water storage ?

All depends on where you live.  If the water freezes you could do a lot of damage, damage to the hull, crack the through-hull fittings, freeze cockpit drain holes...etc, etc.  You could install a bubbler system...and the electricity could fail, especially in a bad winter storm when you need it the most.  You also leave your boat exposed, with the mast up, to winter storms, including northeasters on the east coast, which can be quite nasty.  Do you know what the 'WNA' designation on the Plimsoll mark of a freighter means - "Winter in North Atlantic".  It is lower on the hull than the mark for the max load in other seasons so that the ship rides higher because the weather is so terrible then.

Is winter sailing a pipedream ?

Again, depends on where you live.  In NJ I have left the boat in till early December many years and had a couple of good days in late Nov, early Dec.  Last winter there were many days in Jan and Feb that would have been great sailing...it was a very warm winter.

I gave serious thought to making a marine railroad in my back yard just so I could sail on nice days in the winter.  The idea was to keep the boat rigged but safely out of the water.  Then the reality of moving railroad track, getting state approvals, etc., etc., set in and I abandoned the project.

How long could I go without hauling and painting ?

Depends on your bottom paint and marine growth in your area...also your tolerance for the risk of not hauling and inspecting every year.

One more point...be sure to check your insurance policy regarding your sailing period vs. lay up period.  You may have to let your insurance company know you intend to keep the boat in the water for the winter.



Trailers

Are there any good sources for used trailers ?

We just got a quotation from the Cradle Shop for a new tandem trailer for a Laser 28, complete with surge brakes - Total cost C$3500.00 - This compares with a home built that we did a few years ago at about $2400.00
 



Maintenance

Dry Rot

I have a problem with dry rot in the cockpit floor core. I have a leak somewhere, I suspect from a bad seal around the companionway hatch, that has leaked water into the area between the inner liner and the cockpit floor. This area has been saturated with water probably for most of the season last year, and who know how many years before that. Anyway, as I see it I have 2 options: 1. remove damaged core and replace - either from above (mucho $) or below (not much space to work) 2. saturate with epoxy resin Does anybody have any experience with doing either of the above? Namely cutting through the inner liner (what kind of power tool will be easiest), or using an off the shelf dry rot repair resin like GIT ROT? Or any advice in general?

#2, or GIT ROT is not really an option. We still have to repair the damage done by a previous owner overloading our forward hatch with the latter and it STILL didn't help the original problem. The hatch is so heavy that Pat can only barely lift the hatch!

  1. 1: Get rid of the source of the problem. (A second option is to lead the water away from anything it'll damage and probably into the bilge. Most don't like it, but it IS an option.)
  2. 2: If the cockpit floor is too soft , has cracks in it or similar evidence of a REAL problem, do the job from the top. Working from below is NOT going to be easy and probably won't work well. I'm surprised though: Our cockpit floor has no inner liner. Yours must be one of the new-fangled boats.

We did half of our deck this way:

Sounded out where the good wood was -- not much after 25 years of neglect.

Cut the skin out to the edge of the BAD wood with a Skil saw set to 1/2" or less. (Don't touch the inner glass between the wood and inner liner.) If possible, make the cuts in the smooth areas, not through non-skid.

Finish the corners with a Dremel and cutting blades.

Carefully pry the skin up in one piece and put to the side.

Pull out the ply. A floor removal chisel helped. It'll probably come up in little pieces.

Around the edges (where the top skin still exists) rout out the bad core. A 1/2" router bit, 6 or 12" drill extension & a 1/2" bearing mounted on a drill is LOTS easier than chisels.

Clean and sand thoroughly.

Replace the core. I liked end-grain balsa. Next time I try this, I'll get a thick enough balsa that I have a little extra thickness: I replaced 1/2" with 1/2". The ply had swelled, making the actual thickness more like 5/8", and matching thickness used much more filler than I liked. I'd prefer to sand the balsa down at the edges rather than build the area up.

I did not put balsa around any of the through-deck fittings or the outside edge. I filled at least an inch around each fitting's hole with fortified epoxy. NO water will be coming in through those bolts!

Fit (carefully) and replace the top skin. Where screws or bolts go through the deck, pre-drill some holes so you can screw the deck down at those spots while the epoxy sets. (Grease the screws so they don't get stuck, of course!) It's particularly nice in the center of the panels, since no amount of weight seems to do the job just right.

Tape and glass the edges and inch either side of the crack. Simply bedding the skin in epoxy isn't enough.

That said, if the deck isn't cracking or causing any real problem: DON'T BOTHER WITH THE ABOVE! As I said at the top, I did HALF of our deck. The structural difference wasn't sufficient to bother with the mess again. If/when I have LOTS of time or structural damage starts showing up, the rest of the deck gets done.


Hull/Deck Joint

I had a serious leak problem at the hull/deck joint that resulted in wet lockers. Many times the Tanzer newsletter advised against removing the rub rail so I was reluctant to do that voluntarily. However, my rail was apparently under less tension than when new because it would sometimes slip off of the joint in a good wave. It could be slipped easily back over the joint. With this in mind I lifted the rail off of the joint, starting in the middle, and worked it off towards both the bow and the stern, but I never unfastened it at the ends. This exposed most of the joint but it avoided the problem of having to unfasten/fasten it, and possible problems stretching it around the stern corners...the warnings in the newsletter were still in my mind.

I found a thick mess of caulk upon caulk where the previous owner appeared to have been adding more and more in hopes of curing the leak. Of course, a thick glob of caulk on top of a thin layer that is not properly sealed to the fiberglass is useless. I stripped off most of the mess by hand or by cutting it with a knife. I then used a wire brush in a right-angle power grinder to remove the rest and scuff up the ends of the hull and deck where they fold horizontal to form the joint. I also cleaned out the gap between the hull and deck where it was wide enough to get a knife into.

With all of the old caulk off I then cleaned the edges with acetone and applied a bead of polysulfide (Boat-Life I believe, it was a while ago) along the joint, trying to inject it into the gap where possible. In places where the gap was too small I just applied the bead on the surface of the joint at the gap and smoothed it over the deck/hull ends.

The rub rail went back on with no problem (remember I never fully unfastened it). I solved the original problem of waves shifting the rail by fastening it with two small (#6 SS sheet metal) screws through the top of the rail, vertically into the deck at the joint.


Cleaning Foggy Ports

The final act of preparing ALLONS for sea was to try Brasso on our foggy ports. In the past I have tried a number of other fixes, all did little to help; some even made the problem worse.


Port Repair

|I (actually a friend) removed all of the ports and the frames, removed and discarded the rotten rubber gasket. He then carefully masked the ports with masking tape, ran a bead of silicon around each, and reinstalled them in the metal frame, and then smoothed the residual silicon by hand. He effectively manufactured a new gasket in place out of silicon.

That was about 10 years ago and it still looks and works fine. --- The ports on my T22 , and I believe on most , consist of an aluminum frame and a Plexiglas window , the whole assembly screws on from the outside with about a dozen half inch #6 self tapping screws . The Plexiglas is held in place with strip of rubber, which is pushes in between the window and the frame like a wedge and locks into place . The bedding for the Plexiglas is narrow strip of weather-stripping with adhesives backing that sticks to the frame .... I rebuilt the windows a few years ago and suggest that the most important part of the job is to have all the parts completely clean before reassembling. You will probably find caulking in the most unusual places . In my case a former owner had tried to stop leaks by removing the inside vinyl trim and filling the cavity with some type of sealant. The result was trapped moisture and all the damage that goes with it .... To do the job right in my view everything should come apart and the frame totally cleaned ... acetone or lacquer thinner with steelwool works well.....the backing and rubber seal should be replaced and are available from the T22 association people ... Also totally remove all traces of caulking from the fiberglass with a razor scraper and acetone before reinstalling the windows ... use lots of sikaflex and if the screws don't grip replace the #6 with #8 no larger than half inch..... This is not a small job .... Tom


Mast Wiring

I have to do some rewiring to the masthead this winter on my Tanzer-27 and I was wondering if anyone would be able to advise me on how to proceed. I have to re-run a cable to the instruments at the masthead (wind speed and direction) and I'm not sure how to proceed. I'm having the mast unstepped (its bolted to the cabin top) and that will give me access at the base, but I don't know if or how: 1) to gain access at the mast head, 2) pull the cable the length of the 38 foot mast and 3) deaden the sound of the cable (and while I'm at it the other cables inside) from banging against the mast. Any suggestions? Short-cuts? Preferred materials insulating material?

I had to deal with this quite a few years ago. Here is what I did.

0) Remove the halyard sheaves at the top of the mast and maybe remove the casting at the bottom of the mast. If I remember correctly there is only a single bolt at the top holding the sheaves.

1) Buy a piece of utility 1/8" nylon line a little over twice the mast height. You will leave this inside the mast for future use so don't use a borrowed piece.

2) If you have an electrician friend borrow a device known as a 'fish wire' or 'fish tape'. That is a stiff wire used to snake wires inside the walls of a house. If you can't fine one of those use a stiff piece of wire long enough to pass through the mast. I believe that I used some 1/8" steel wire I had around the house. I still may have some and will be glad to loan it to you (I live in Little Silver). A piece of Romex should also work.

3) Attach the 1/8" nylon to the front end of the fish wire. Push the fish wire and nylon up through the mast. When it reaches the top end create a loop in the nylon and pass it around a screwdriver or bolt in the top of the mast. Then pull the fish wire with nylon attached back out, in the reverse direction of the way it went in. Tie the two loose ends of the nylon together at the bottom to form a continuous loop that extends a little past both the top and bottom of the mast.

4) Now you can attach the instrument cable to the nylon and pull it up, being careful to pull the nylon in a drive-belt fashion and not pull it out of the mast. It helps to have one person at each end or loop one end over the sheave bolt.

5) When your electrical work is complete fetch several sponges or pieces of soft foam, about the same size as the mast. Tie the first sponge/foam to the nylon and pull it part way up the mast, again in drive-belt fashion. Tie the next one on, and pull the nylon further along. Continue this until you have foam pieces distributed along the inside of the mast. This will silence any wire slap.

6) Finally, attach a sponge/foam to the very top end of the nylon and push it down inside the mast a bit. The sponge/foam will hold the line and prevent it from falling further down inside the mast. At the bottom just stuff the line inside. You may want to add one more sponge/foam here to keep the line from getting in the way when you raise the mast.

7) Now you will already have the rope inside the mast the next time you have to get a wire up the mast. The foam will probably interfere but it won't be too hard to remove it the reverse of the way you put it in, pull the wire up on the nylon line, and reinstall the foam.

8) Clean and lubricate the sheave bearings and sides before you reinstall them. I would use a marine-grade grease on the bearing surfaces.

On the topic of electrical wiring on the mast...I was unhappy with the wires just passing out through a hole in the side of the mast and into a hole in the deck. Water ran along the wires and into the deck hole, and I was afraid I would snag something on the wires and damage them. I found a couple of rail stanchion bases...stainless castings with a 3/4" (or so) through-hole and a flange on one end. I attached a 45 degree stanchion base, pointing down, over the wire hole on the mast and a 90 degree stanchion base over the wire hole on the deck. I then got a piece of flexible hose that just fit over the stanchion bases, passed the wires through the stanchion base on the mast, through the tubing, through the stanchion base on the deck, and then fit the tubing to both bases. It looks great. Unfortunately, the tubing deteriorated in the sun after a few years so when I replaced it I also made a cover for the tubing from Sunbrella. No problems since.


Loosening Frozen Joints

I have tried wd40, as well as two other rust looseners or removers, as well as heat from a propane torch. Nothing has allowed me to get them out of their holders. Any suggestions???

Let me offer a few. I have developed a bit of expertise at getting frozen parts separated. Five years ago (11 Dec 92 to be exact) a Nor'easter flooded my basement and submerged twenty five years of tool collecting in salt water. I was so disheartened by the mess that I only recently had the ambition to tackle the restoration of the big power tools. Needless to say, many parts were frozen together. Here in rough order of application is what I found worked.

1) I always start with penetrating oil as you have, apply and let sit for some time.

2) Try to wiggle the part...just a little, then a little more, etc. This has been often successful.

3) Try to break the bond with hammering. If I have a shaft passing through a hole in a casting, for example, I would hammer on the side of the casting, perpendicular to the shaft, supporting the casting on a massive anvil of some sort, perhaps a real anvil or block of iron. For this a steel hammer is suitable, I use a ball-peen hammer to concentrate the force.

In no case should you hammer on the end of the shaft with a metal hammer, that will only deform the shaft. Use wood or plastic on the end.

In the case of your spreaders, have a helper hold a heavy metal block on one side of the holder in which the spreader is stuck while you hammer on the opposite side. Work your way all around the holder and then go back to step 2. I believe this should do the trick. You may have to hammer quite a while to break the bond. Gauge how hard to hammer by the damage you do to the surface of the holder.

4) Apply major force. Here you have to be very careful, I sheared a lead screw on my lathe doing it. If you have a sense of the strength of the material you are using, and have a way to apply the force without damaging the surface, it can be very effective. In the case of your spreaders a pipe wrench will hold it but I would be very concerned about the teeth marks that it will certainly produce. You also want to hold the spreader holder so you don't shear it from the mast.

5) Apply heat...I mean real heat from a oxy-acetylene torch, not a propane torch. When all else failed this was always successful for me. A piece of red-hot steel expands enough that major force then frees the piece. You have to consider what the heat will do, however. It can melt adjacent plastic, produce surface cosmetic blemishes, and damage paint.

In the case of your spreader you have to be very cautious if all parts are aluminum. If the holders are stainless, they can take a lot of heat.

6) Here is the single most important bit of advice I can give. Remember that sooner or later, you or someone else will want to get the thing apart again.

Apply anti-seize compound during assembly.

I keep one can of anti-seize in my auto tool box, another in my rigging box and I use it on just about everything exposed to heat and salt and most other fasteners. It works so well that I was able to un-do a big shackle on my mooring that was under salt water for ten years. (Just don't put it on the tapered joint between the flywheel and drive shaft of your outboard, believe me, I know.)

In summary: bang on the side of the holder, reassemble with anti-seize.


Compounding the Hull

I like to know if someone have some information on which kind of polisher/compound?

Almost every year I compound and wax the hull of my T22. I have a device known as a power grinder (or right angle grinder). It consists of a hefty motor driving a shaft at a right angle to the axis of the machine. The shaft can take a lot of different tools: grinding wheel (hence the name of the machine), wire brush, sanding disk, and in particular, a lamb's wool buffing wheel.

I've never really worried about the brand of compound I use, only the abrasive grade, typically light or heavy (fine or coarse). I use heavy if I have a lot of chalking, for example, if I missed a year, otherwise I use light. I've never had a problem keeping from cutting through the gel-coat with the polishing surface. I did have a problem when I hit the gel-coat with the edge of the wheel, which did not have a lamb's wool covering. This happened at some concave curves of the top-sides near the rub-rail.

My T22 dates from 1974. With a good compounding it still comes up to a nice smooth surface. I can see absolutely no reason to consider painting.

One word of caution. While I have had no safety incidents with the grinder, I do remember one at Atlantic Highland's Boatyard many years ago. Somehow the buffing wheel snagged or caught on the hull or a fixture and the buffer kicked up to the operators face. A little common sense is in order: wear safety goggles, keep long hair tied up and under-hat, no loose clothing, and pay attention to the rotation of the disk in relation to the kick direction of the machine (away from you) and potential snags.

The grinder I use is not too expensive, probably $125 to $150 (US), plus a little more for the buffing wheel. It is a mighty handy tool to own if you are into boating and I'm sure you would find other uses for it besides compounding. I used a grinding wheel on mine for some keel work. ---

The Eastwood Company in Malvern, PA (800) 345-1178 sells a product called Corroless that was developed to stop BRITISH CARS FROM RUSTING, and it seemed to work well on the three MGs my son and I restored, and has held up well on my trailer for the 16' Tanzer that I reconditioned about 3-4 years ago..... I plan to use it on my 22 keel after sandblasting, and will know after a few years whether it worked as expected.... Eastwood says it can be painted on over (non-scaling) rust, if you're not too concerned about a smooth finish. The nice part is that it doesn't say "boat" on the can, so it's much cheaper than most marine stuff. If anyone else has any experience with this, let me know....


Cleaning the Keel

After my first or second season with my T22 I realized I had a lot of rust. I started grinding it with a right-angle power grinder, a hefty tool that spins a grinding wheel at 4500 rpm or so. I got a lot of sparks and metal flying but I wasn't making much headway. I had a lot of heavy rust scale that appeared to have considerable metalic iron in it along with the rust. The grinder could cut it but it was taking forever to get down to the solid keel.

Realizing that the scale was brittle and the keel beneath it was hard I tried hitting it with a hammer...success...the scale broke off, but it would still take far to long to do it by hand. What was needed was some kind of power hammer.

I tried an air-powered hammer and it did the job just fine. It took about an hour-and-a-half to chip all of scale from each side of the keel, taking it down to solid cast iron. I then used the power grinder to touch up any remaining spots but there were very little. The air hammer has the look of a gun with a tip that is held in place by a coil spring. The tip vibrates in-and-out several thousand times a minute, banging on anything in front of it. The tips come in several shapes from point to chisel and one for cutting sheet metal. I found the point worked fine, probably because it produces the greatest pressure at the point of impact.

With the keel clean I applied a coat or two of a primer and several coats of epoxy. With a little touch up every couple of seasons it has held up well for nine or ten years. --- 1) grind back to bright metal (more or less) 2) 2 coats Pettit Rust-Lok (seems to be very effective) 3) 3-4 coats Interprotect 2000 (did the whole hull below waterline) 4) recoat with VC-17

So far the bottom looks great (second year) Hope it stays that way, don't want to do that again!

after grinding and before painting, the hull was cleaned with four solvents: soapy water, acetone, alcohol, and water again. So far adhesion has been good.


Keel Bolts

I am replacing all the 14 original keelbolt backing plates (1-1/2" square washers) with stainless steel ones of the same. I can't believe Tanzer used regular carbon steel washers and stainless keel bolts! Anyway, because my T26 #412 does collect enough water in the bilge at times to cover these bolts creating a brown, rusty mess. Is anyone aware of the proper torque spec for tightening these keelbolts? Failing a spec, it will likely be just lean on em' till you gasp for air a couple of times.

A few years ago I had Johann Tanzer aboard my boat (T22) and he said the keel bolts should be torqued to 100 lbs.



Outboards

Mounting Shaft

How do I loosen my outboard motor's mounting shaft?

  1. Try to pump in fresh grease. If you can get any in at all you will probably then be able to get it moving.
  2. Try a penetrating solvent. I generally prefer CRC over WD-40 for general use but try either. Apply it to any access points like the top/bottom of the shaft. Once a day, give a little squirt. Be patient. The solvent has to make its way along the shaft, dissolving dry grease as it goes. It will be a big help if you can get any motion at all.
  3. If you have an extra grease gun, especially one of the little ones that you can pack yourself, try putting light oil or kerosene in the gun and pump it into the grease fitting. That will get it in faster than capillary action alone.
  4. Drive out the shaft with force. But remember, never hit a shaft with anything metallic...always use a plastic hammer, or put a block of wood or a wooden dowel on the shaft and hit the block or dowel.

I wouldn't use acetone. It will take time for any solvent to penetrate and acetone will evaporate too fast.

Once you do get it loose you should disassemble the mount, remove the shaft, clean it thoroughly, and reassemble it with fresh grease. You can use acetone here if you must but I prefer kerosene.

And to avoid the problem in the future, give it a couple of squirts of grease every year...even better give it enough grease to see fresh grease coming out the ends.


Motors

What type of motor is recommended?

Most outboards for Tanzer 22's range from 5 to 10 horsepower. Things to consider when purchasing a motor are:

2 stroke vs. 4 stroke:
Engine weight: May want to keep this down if you race or have problems lifting heavy objects. Reliability: How easy is it to start?
Power
Generator
Electric start

The Honda 7.5 is a good 4 stroke engine. Very easy starter and plenty of push . 



Accessories

Anchors

With good anchorages getting ever more popular, I find there often isn't room to let out enough scope and still avoid swinging round into my "neighbour's" gelcoat when the wind shifts at sunset. The little Danforth (and 4 ft chain) that was stock on the T22 seems pretty small to me if I can only have 3:1 scope (!). "Upgrading" to a more serious anchor leads to stowage problems, as nothing much bigger will fit in the T22 bow compartment. I thought about anchoring only around remote Bahamian keys, but, really, it does make for a long sail back home. Do folks generally use the original anchor? Would adding a longer length of chain - say 8 ft - be practical?

Here's an anchoring tip that may be applicable to your Tanzer 22 (if it is equipped with a bow eye). It's from the Ottawa River Sailing Page (one of my web sites).

Increasing Your Scope

Trailerable boats and other vessel with a bow eye have an advantage in a crowded anchorages where there isn't much room to swing on a long anchor rode. By tying their anchor rode to the bow eye, they can enjoy the extra holding power that comes with as much as a 30% increase in scope. This is because the bow eye is often 3 to 4 feet lower than the top of the bow. A boat anchored in 10 feet of water with a 50 foot rode tied to top of its bow will have a scope of a little more than 3.5 to 1. By simply tying to the rode to the bow eye, scope increases to nearly 5 to 1. (Note: ensure that the rode can be released quickly from the bow eye in case it becomes necessary to leave the anchorage in a hurry.)

An illustration which accompanies this tip can be found at: http://www.magma.ca/~mcsail/ott/tips.htm

The following tip is from the FAQs of a boating discussion group in the Ottawa area. It was posted by Greg Dargavel (as457@freenet.carleton.ca), who sails a Tanzer 7.5, and is a member of this list.

Using a Kellett by Greg Dargavel:

Another handy trick to reduce scope in a tight anchorage or when it blows like stink is a kellett. I use an old cast iron counter weight from double hung windows but anything small and dense will do (crew excepted!). While you can use snatchblocks to reduce the chafing all I do is loop a line through the kellet, do a big loop bowline around the anchor line and then using the rest of the line ease the loop and kellett down the anchor line til it is well below the waterline. Again scope is reduced and holding power increased. As with the anchor, be sure to secure the end of the line with the kellett aboard. When departing bring the kellett aboard and the raise anchor as usual.

And finally, you can find a general article about Anchoring Basics on the Ottawa Sailing Page. However, it may only be of marginal interest since it is aimed at first time cruisers, and focuses on anchoring conditions associated with the Ottawa River. The URL: http://www.magma.ca/~mcsail/ott/anchor5.htm --- Definitely upgrade the anchor size and add more chain if you're in a tight anchorage! If not for your protection then for mine.

Another old trick to increase holding power on short scope is to add a kellet on your anchor line. A kellet is simply a weight which you slide down the anchor line (on the end of a light line so you can retrieve it). The kellet lowers the angle of your anchor line to the bottom and thus increases holding power. l use an old cast iron 10 lb. weight from an old window sash. Its a cylinder about a foot long and a couple of inches in diameter. I simply do a big bowline around the anchor line and through a hole in the kellet after I've set the anchor . I then pay out the line and the bowline and kellet slip down the rode usually about 2/3 of the way to the bottom. While you can buy fancy kellets with a block cast right in, I find this system works under the KISS principle and does not seem to chafe the rode. --- A Danforth 8S fits in the T-22 anchor well along with 10' of 1/4" chain and 100' of 3/8" nylon rope. The cockpit locker has a Danforth 12H with its 30' of 5/16" chain and 250' of 1/2" nylon rope in a milk crate. There is a lso a half size milk crate with 250' of 3/8 nylon to use with the 8S in deeper water. Under the aft cockpit cover with the gas tank is a 4 lb Danforth with a little bit of chain and 150' of 5/16 braided nylon stored on an extension cord reel. The little Danforth gets the most use. It is small enough to throw it into the bushes or over a log on the shore either alone or with one of the other anchors set in deeper water. --- Two comments on anchors: 1. An 8 lb. danforth with about 6' chain and 200 feet of 1/2" nylon rode seems to fit our T-22 anchor locker fine with careful coiling. We also carry a 2nd anchor (8 lb.also) in the starboard lazarette. For overnight stops, we always put out 2 anchors 180 degrees apart, to reducethe likelihood that shifting currents or winds will unseat the anchor. I've never felt the need for a bigger anchor, as the circumstances which usually cause dragging (such as poor holding ground or change of pulling direction) don't seem related to anchor weight. 2. Beware of pulpit-mounted anchor brackets!! I now have a larger boat (Newport 28) with an abysmally designed anchor locker that will not hold the anchor and rode. I installed the anchor on pulpit brackets, which were fine for a while. However, I came back to the moored boat after a 2 week absence to discover the anchor had worked out of the bracket during some heavy weather and carved some very disagreeable patterns in the bow. Lesson learned--never leave your anchor in pulpit brackets when you are not on the boat. --- Anchored like that in the Chesapeak Bay, I had a a much larger boat spend 30 minutes setting and resetting his hook only to finish 50' upwind of me. He asked, "Do you think I am a little too close ? Do you think I might drag into you tonight ?" I answered, "My board is up. I am in 3' of water. There is no way you can hit me." He was gone in ten minutes. --


Autohelm

I purchased both an Autohelm 1000 and a Signet wind speed/direction unit around 1986/1987. This was the first year the 1000 was sold and Signet had just been purchased by the firm owning Autohelm. In fact, Autohelm had just announced a 'follow the wind' feature to link the two devices. I used 'standard' Autohelm parts to mount the unit. A 3" dia by 3/8" thick disk was through bolted to the cockpit seat about 18" forward of the tiller/rudder pin. When in use, a 1" dia by 3" high post screws into it and the pin on the bottom of the Autohelm fits into the top of that. Autohelm sells a varity of brackets which bolt to the bottom of the tiller and provide a drop of some number of inches. I think I used the 5" unit. The wire to attach to the wind machine interface is coiled and held in place under the gas tank cover. The unit has worked like a champ all of these years.

Must say that most of the usage was on Lake George while motoring long distances. At that time, I was single and unless racing was normally single handing. I also used the Autohelm while raising/lowering sails, changing foresails, getting food/beer, paying beer rent etc. I rarely used the 'follow the wind' feature. Among other things, it was a bother to setup and the wind was too shifty. Probably should not have spent the money on that option. Today, I will not leave the dock without the unit ready to go. Even though I now have a new wife with me, the Autohelm usage is for the same things only less often since she does a lot of the other work. We also have better wind and not so far to travel so there is not as much motoring. I feel much safer knowing I can drop the unit onto the pin, push a button and will stay on the same course while I deal with a "disaster'"


Cockpit Table

I am currently thinking about building a cockpit table for our next dinner

I designed an approach for a cockpit table for a T22. The T22 is not a T26 but the design may give you some other options to consider.

Two thoughts drove the design. 1) I already had a galley table; and 2) storing anything on the boat is problematic.

Thus, I decided to use the existing galley table in the cockpit as well. The table is attached in the galley by a couple of stainless brackets at one end, and a supported at the other by a folding leg. I was able to find another pair of the SS brackets at a local boat shop. I fashioned a small piece of wood to go into the hatch, resting on the lower fallboard, and attached the bracket member that mates with the one on the table to the wood.

I then found a small strip of brass, drilled and tapped it to accept a 1/4-20 nylon bolt, and attached it to the cockpit sole so that the table peg can be screwed down when the table is in use.

It works great and we have had some of our most memorable meals in quiet coves on the boat eating in the cockpit.


Dinette Table

We have a 1981 t22 which we sail with the table in the down position. My problem is that when the boat heels over excessively, the table slides out from under the cushions.

I wonder if anybody knows where I might find a length of the track used to keep the table in the upright position. I would like to attach a small piece between the seats of the dinette. --- I used two dead bolts on the underside of the table and drilled to holes into the side wood. --- I solved this problem on my Tanzer by attaching an elastic line under the table on the outside edge. The line catches the fwd edge of the folded table leg. No problems with the table sliding out since the line was installed 4 years ago. The elastic is easily removed when you want to set up the table. --- To keep my tabletop from sliding off the wood supports when it is in the down position, I screwed two wood screws into the wood supports, cut their heads off, and drilled two corresponding holes in the bottom of the table top. The wood screws form two pins which engage in the table top when it is down and keep it from sliding to starboard. The holes are slightly countersunk to help guide the pins into the holes. The screws are short enough and outboard enough to keep them from poking someone in the leg when sitting at the table.


Ice Box

What is wrong with 'T-ing' the ice box drain into the sink drain (down near the floor so it's below the bottom of the box) and getting rid of that plastic bottle?

It comes down to reliablilty and separation of systems. On a good day it would work fine. But if you forgot to open your sink drain, or if your sink drain through-hull got plugged, then sink waste will back up into your ice box.


Water Tank

For some time I was bugged by my 1975 T22's pronounced list to starboard. Then I realized the problem: the water tank.

I never used the water tank on my T22 and removed the faucet/pump. Since our use of the boat is almost exclusively day sailing I don't need eight gallons of water. Instead I bring a Gott insulated water jug along. I attached a couple of teak strips on the bulkhead adjacent to the sink and fashioned a couple of nylon straps with Fastex buckles to retain the jug. The spigot is over the sink which catches drips and provides a space for glasses under the spigot while filling them. The problems of filling and hygiene of the built-in tank are eliminated.

I thought of removing the original tank for storage room but never did get around to it. Your thought of cutting an access hole from above is good.


Wooden Doors

Has anybody fitted sliding wood doors in place of the curtain between the v-berth and the cabin? How'd you do it? do you like it?

For the T22 there was an article in the Tanzer Newsletter many years ago about using hinged doors there.


Sunbrella

I would also appreciate any comments from experience with the "Sunbrella" brand fabric regarding appearance, durability and water resistance.

My experience, and that of most people I know, is that Sunbrella is the fabric of choice for marine applications. The dark blue color is most often seen. I have a distant recollection that that color may hold up best under the stress of UV. I have had a Sunbrella main cover for ten years, out in the sun for eight summers. While the stitching needed some attention the fabric shows no fading.


Swimming Ladder

I've just purchaced a stainless steel swim ladder (used 3-step Rig-it) and I need some advice on mounting: - do I need to add a mounting plate to the inside of the transom to distribute the load? - if so, do I need a steel plate, or would a chunk of wood be OK?

Reinforcement is necessary. I used hardwood blocks but metal plates don't rot. ---- I found replacement track (Barton, same cross section, same length, same mounting holes) at a rigger, being sold as a deck track and sliding fairlead combo for a dingy. The old lugs were welded to the stainless screws, so I improvised with aluminum sail stop lugs of the same diameter (recommended by a J-24 racer I chatted up in the store). Works perfectly (so far) for around $60 Cdn, with left over bits - anyone interested in a sliding fairlead?



Miscellaneous

Making a Mooring

I have been told to make a pyramid shaped cement "anchor" with re-bar in it to which I attach a shackle, then chain (3/8 ??), then a swivel shackle (??) then a "float" with a pendant shackled to the swivel.

I can tell you what I did and that it has worked fine for over ten years. The previous owner of my home told me I could have his mooring. Foolishly, I did not raise it for inspection but just attached my T22 to it as he had done with a similar sized boat for years. That worked fine for a little over a year until I was awoken by my son (after a good blast of wind the previous night) informing me that "the sailboat is gone". Fortunately, the mooring chain had parted at the mooring and provided a sufficient drag to keep the boat from drifting too far in the wind, and it held it in place not far from my home once the wind stopped. The boat wasn't damaged but I needed a new mooring.

Being a tight-wad I wasn't up to buy a new 200# or so mushroom as well as all of the tackle so I decided to make my own. I found some rebar and a galvanized steel rod about 1" in diameter with an eye at one end. I fashioned a cage from the rebar, welded it all together, and welded the rod to the cage in the middle. I suspect that the rod originally was used to anchor a guy for a utility pole.

I then put the cage into a cardboard box lined with plastic sheeting. The box that I used was a shipping box for a computer monitor and was about 20" on a side (not sure exactly, it was over ten years ago). I moved the box to my dock float, put in the rebar cage, and started pouring concrete. It is important to do the pouring on the dock since it will be very difficult to move once filled.

I chose the box to get a weight of about 500# out of the water. Concrete is remarkably bouyant and it takes a lot to get an effective weight under water. If I remember correctly, the density of concrete is about 1.6. That means a 20" cube will weigh 500# but displace 312# of water (at 62.4 #/cubic-foot), yielding an effective weight under water of about 200#.

After the concrete set and the tackle was rigged, I moved the dock and mooring to position and (with great care and a big splash) pushed it overboard. Pipes as rollers under the box helped.

A couple of tips:

1) Take a sighting on a couple of objects on land with sight lines 90 degrees apart and make a note of the observations. This may come in handy if you ever separate the chain from the float and need to recover it.

2) Use anti-seize compound on all underwater threads. You'll appreciate it later when you try to open rusty shackles.

Just last year I finally raised my mooring for inspection and found it to be in fine shape. Neither the lower chain nor the shackle showed any appreciable deterioration. Because I followed tip 2 above I was able to open the shackle. I replaced the upper chain, near the surface and oxygen, several years ago due to thinning in the top two feet or so.

I used a auto engine chain-fall hoist attached to one end of my dock to raise it. I rigged a roller from a boat trailer at the other end for the mooring chain to pass over. Worked fine.

In 10 feet of water, how much chain? What size of float, what kind of float? And the questions go on and on and on

I'm afraid that I not sure of the specifics of the chain size that I used. I believe that it 20' of 1/2 followed by 10' of 3/8. After that I have a swivel and a float. The float is hard (not inflatable) and about 12" in diameter. I attached two 20' pendants attached to the swivel under the float (so the integrity of the system is not dependent on the float) but above the swivel joint. I have anti-chafe gear on each pendant where it passes through the bow chocks. Rope is cheap and two pendants is good insurance. The water depth varies roughly between three and six feet so this system is a bit over-engineered. But, I have exposure to the east, sheltered from the ocean only by a strip barrier land two miles away, so I welcome the extra protection in nor'easters or hurricanes.

Let me bring up one point for further comment by members, that of a swivel at the mooring (on the bottom, not at the float). When I first dropped the mooring it landed upside down so that the rod and chain were in the mud. No tangles. But, when I put it in last year after inspection, the rod was sticking up (because I lowered it down gently instead of dropping it) and it only took a couple of weeks for the chain to tangle around the rod. I solved the problem by fastening the shackle around the rod, using the eye as a stopper, instead of fastening the shackle through the eye. A better solution would have been to use a shorter rod so only the eye sticks up above the concrete. Do others have a swivel at the bottom? I don't like the idea because the swivel joint wears much faster than chain and I have already replaced mine several years ago. But without it does your chain wrap on the mooring shank? Or, does your mushroom lay on its side or bury in the mud?


Removing the Mast Base

I am thinking about installing a steaming light on the front of the mast just above the spreaders - my mast seems to have a solid, riveted on base to it - any one ever taken that off (and how)

I have a casting at the bottom of the mast but it is not solid. Instead, the casting is more of a ring with an oval (if I remember correctly) hole in the middle, about 2" x 3" or so in dia.

Remove it by drilling out the rivets or filing/grinding their heads off. It is usually sufficient to drill the head with a drill bit larger than the rivet shank diameter, but drill just enough to remove the head and not enlarge the hole. Sometimes the rivet spins in the hole and can't be drilled. That's when a file may be needed. You may have to drive the rivets through with a pin punch once you have removed their heads.

Refasten with new rivets, self-taping screws, or tap the holes and use machine screws. (Don't forget anti-seize compound. Never forget anti-seize compound!) Since the mast and bottom casting are under compression once installed the fasteners only real purpose is to retain the casting when the mast is off of the boat or while it is in transit.


Humour

Suggestions for the ex-sailor who misses the "good old days" (geared to the "surface squid")...

  1. Sleep on the shelf in your closet.
  2. Replace the closet door with a curtain.
  3. Six hours after you go to sleep, have your wife whip open the curtain, shine a flashlight in your eyes, and mumble "Sorry, wrong rack", or "Your watch!".
  4. Renovate your bathroom. Build a wall across the middle of your bathtub and move the shower head down to chest level.
  5. When you take showers, make sure you shut off the water while soaping.
  6. Every time there's a thunderstorm, go sit in a wobbly rocking chair and rock as hard as you can until you're nauseous.
  7. Put lube oil in your humidifier instead of water and set it to "High".
  8. Don't watch TV except movies in the middle of the night. Also, have your family vote on which movie to watch, then show a different one.
  9. (Mandatory for ex-engineering types) Leave lawnmower running in your living room 24 hours a day for proper noise level.
  10. Have the paperboy give you a haircut.
  11. Once a week blow compressed air up through your chimney, making sure the wind carries the soot across and onto your neighbor's house. Laugh at him when he curses you.
  12. Buy a trash compactor and only use it once a week. Store up garbage in the other side of your bathtub.
  13. Wake up at midnight and have a peanut butter and jelly sandwich on stale bread. (Optional: cold canned ravioli or soup).
  14. Make up your family menu a week ahead of time without looking in your food cabinets or refrigerator.
  15. Set your alarm clock to go off at random times during the night. When it goes off, jump out of bed and get dressed as fast as you can, then run out into your yard and break out the garden hose.
  16. Once a month take every major appliance completely apart and then put them back together.
  17. Use 18 scoops of coffee per pot and allow it to sit for 5 or 6 hours before drinking.
  18. Invite at least 85 people you don't really like to come and visit for a couple of months.
  19. Have a fluorescent lamp installed on the bottom of your coffee table and lie under it to read books.
  20. Raise the thresholds and lower the top sills on your front and back doors so that you either trip over the threshold or hit your head on the sill every time you pass through one of them.
  21. Lockwire the lugnuts on your car.
  22. When making cakes, prop up one side of the pan while it is baking. Then spread icing really thick on one side to level off the top.
  23. Every so often, throw your cat into the swimming pool, shout "Man overboard, ship recovery!", run into the kitchen and sweep all the pots/pans/dishes off of the counter onto the floor, then yell at your wife for not having the place "stowed for sea".
  24. Put on the headphones from your stereo (don't plug them in). Go and stand in front of your stove. Say (to nobody in particular) "Stove manned and ready". Stand there for 3 or 4 hours. Say (once again to nobody in particular) "Stove secured". Roll up the headphone cord and put them away.

Last updated: Jan 12, 2002

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